Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreas. Enzymatic cleavage of proinsulin results in the production of equimolar amounts of insulin and C-peptide in circulation. Insulin is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Excessive amount of insulin are associated with excess amounts of glucose in the system. High levels of insulin are known to cause weight gain, water bloating, high blood pressure, magnesium deficiency, and an increase in the amount of inflammatory compounds in the blood, which causes blood clots and blood vessel damage.
Insulin, when insufficiently produced, results in diabetes mellitus. In most cases, a high fasting insulin level is consistent with insulin resistance symptoms, but in some cases, it can be caused by more serious conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, acromegaly, or possibly insulinoma.