Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) or Müllerian-inhibiting hormone (MIH) is a glycoprotein hormone structurally related to inhibin and activin from the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, whose key roles are in growth differentiation and folliculogenesis. AMH expression is critical to sex differentiation at a specific time during fetal development, and appears to be tightly regulated by nuclear receptor SF1, transcription GATA factors, sex-reversal gene DAX1, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). AMH is activated by SOX9 in the Sertoli cells of the male fetus thereby arresting the development of fallopian tubes, uterus, and upper vagina. AMH is also a product of granulosa cells of the preantral and small antral follicles in women. As such, AMH is only present in the ovary until menopause. AMH levels are also lower and even below the detection limit if women withpremature ovarian failure of any cause, including after cancer and chemotherapy.